"Message from the Director" in the order of publication from the present to the past, for one year . The contents will be updated gradually.





Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 34: Florence, Part 14

August 1, 2023


Uffizi Gallery

In the 15th century, Cosimo de' Medici, a member of the Medici family who amassed wealth through banking, gained control of the Republic of Florence ( Repubblica di Firenze ).

The Republic of Florence further expanded in the 16th century and became the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana ).

The first Grand Duke (ruler) of Tuscany was also a member of the Medici family, Cosimo I de' Medici.

Cosimo I de' Medici in the 16th century was a different person from Cosimo de' Medici in the 15th century.

Cosimo I consolidated the administration, judiciary, and legislative functions into one place, which is now known as the Uffizi Gallery.

Since this location was government district ( “Uffici“ in Italian, "offices" in English ), it is called the Uffizi Gallery.


1. "Primavera" (Spring) (15th century)

This is Botticelli's masterpiece.

It is filled with goddesses dancing gracefully in veils, women adorned with flowers, an orange-bearing forest, and plants at their feet.

They are all representing a hymn to spring.

Oranges, known for bearing abundant fruit, also symbolize fertility and prosperity.


Certainly, standing in the center and particularly conspicuous is the goddess of beauty, Venus.

On the right side, Zephyrus with wings and in blue-green color is blowing the wind calling  forth spring to the nymph Chloris.

Zephyrus is the Greek god of the west wind.

To the Greeks, the wind blowing from the west is the wind of spring that brings forth flowers and greenery.

That's why Zephyrus, the god of the west wind, is depicted in blue-green.

Zephyrus, after kidnapping Chloris, grants her the ability to make flowers bloom.

Flowers are beginning to bloom out of her mouth.

Standing next to Chloris is Flora, who ascended to divinity after Zephyrus regretted his own  crime of kidnapping her.

Flora is now the goddess of spring and flowers.

Zephyrus gave Flora a garden, heralding the arrival of "spring."

Here we can see the theory of the four elements.

Empedocles in ancient Greece believed that the world was made up of four elements (earth, water, fire, and air) and that they combined to form the appearance of the universe.

According to his interpretation, the ever-changing nature of the universe is due to two forces: the “force that binds the elements together”, namely love and the “force that separates them”, namely strife.

The theme of this artwork is that the element of "air" (wind) called forth "spring" through love.


Zephyrus, the god of the west wind, not only blew warm winds but also committed a terrible crime.

He had feelings for the beautiful youth Hyacinthus, who was the son of the Spartan king, as did the sun god Apollo.

In ancient Greece, adult male relationships with young boys were considered a symbol of trust and bonds, and they were valued more than love for women.

The two male gods competed for the love of the youth, but Hyacinthus chose Apollo, driving Zephyrus into a jealous rage.

One day, Zephyrus saw Apollo and Hyacinthus playing discus, then he blew a gust of wind at Apollo's thrown discus, causing it to strike the youth in the forehead.

The youth bled bright red blood and perished.

Apollo lamented his death, crying out "Accept my love and be reborn as a flower!"

Apollo's tears fell onto the grass stained with blood, and a beautiful flower bloomed.

This flower came to be known as the "hyacinth," named after the youth

This flower came to be known as the "hyacinth," named after the youth Hyacinthus.

This story has become the origin, so the flower language of the hyacinth is considered to be "love that transcends sorrow."

This is a sad but romantic myth, isn’t it?




Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 33: Florence, Part 13

July 1, 2023


Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born in 1820, about 200 years ago .

In honor of her birthday, "International Nurses Day" is celebrated every year on May 12th.Both of her parents came from wealthy British aristocratic families and they went on a honeymoon trip that lasted for three years long!

It was during this trip that Florence Nightingale was born in Firenze, Italy.

Because she was born in Firenze, she was named "Florence" in English.

Her education-focused father taught her not only English but also Italian, Greek, philosophy, history, and even mathematics, which was considered unnecessary for women in those days.

She grew up to a beautiful and highly educated lady and became a prominent figure in society.

However, after turning 30, she abandoned her engagement and inheritance to become a nurse at a hospital in London, despite nursing being a disrespected and unqualified profession at that time.

Then, in 1853 the Crimean War broke out and she was assigned along with her fellow nurses to the Scutari Army Hospital located in present-day Istanbul.

The hospital appeared luxurious but was built on top of a sewer filled with filth, making it highly unsanitary.

Furthermore, Nightingale and her colleagues were treated as nuisances by the medical staff on site.

Because the chief of the medical staff had reported to his home country England that there were no problems, they did not want Nightingale and her colleagues to carry out their activities and reveal the actual conditions.

Moreover, the military's chain of command was so inefficient that Nightingale had to go out of the way to report the commander of England in order to let the local commander know the shortage of medical supplies.

Therefore, Nightingale stood up against male-dominated structure which was bureaucratic,   apathetic and irrational.

Starting with tasks like cleaning the toilets that no one wanted to do, she gradually expanded her privilege.

Occasionally, she disagreed with her superiors and then smashed open many boxes with her fists and took out the medications and other supplies.

She reported the situation to The Times newspaper.

She also appealed directly to Queen Victoria for donations and even used her personal funds to secure supplies of drugs, foods and medical products.

Thanks to her energetic efforts to improve the environment, the mortality rate of wounded soldiers decreased from 42% to 2% in six months.

Because she visited wounded and sick soldiers with the light of a lamp at every night, they called her with gratitude the “Lady with the Lamp.”

After her return home, Nightingale analyzed the causes of deaths of the soldiers and submitted a report to the government spanning 900 pages.

In this medical report, she used graphs for the first time in the world, and so she is called a “pioneer in statistics.”

She established modern nursing and, at the age of 60, founded a nursing school called the "Nightingale School."

It was the first non-religious nursing school in the world.

Afterward, she came to be known as the "Angel of Crimea" and eventually, nurses were referred to as "angels in white."

However, she disliked this designation and stated, "An angel is not someone who just hand out beautiful flowers, but someone who fights for the sake of the sick."

She continued to dedicate her life to nursing and hygiene and finally passed away at the age of 90, surrounded by her students and cats.

In commemoration of Nightingale, who was baptized at the Santa Croce Church, there is a statue of the "Lady with the Lamp" on the wall facing the courtyard of church.

The pedestal of the statue is inscribed with the Latin phrase "HORAM NESCITIS" (meaning "Unaware of time").

It succinctly expresses her extremely dedicated nature, tirelessly caring for and nursing patients day and night.




Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 32: Florence, Part 12

June 1, 2023


Santa Croce Church ( Basilica di Santa Croce )

Santa Croce means “Holy Cross.”

This church was built in the 13th century as the center of the Franciscan church in Florence.

It is a representative example of Gothic architecture and embodies the essence of the Renaissance.

Many famous people such as Galileo and Michelangelo are buried here, so it is known as the "glorious temple of all the gods".


Galileo Galilei: "Do not doubt the truth, but doubt the common knowledge"

Galileo Galilei was born in the late 16th century.

When considering issues related to astronomy and physics, he did not blindly accept existing theories of Aristoteles or other scholars and philosophers.

He also did not easily trust beliefs supported by the majority, such as the Roman Catholic Church.

 Instead, he conducted his own experiments, observed actual phenomena with his own eyes, and analyzed the results mathematically, resulting in various discoveries.

Therefore, he is called the "father of science" for his contribution to separating science from philosophy and religion.

His discoveries are countless, including the isochronism of the pendulum, the law of falling bodies, and the law of inertia.

Notably, as soon as he heard of the invention of the telescope in the Netherlands in the early 17th century, he quickly improved it and used it for astronomical observations.

Galileo discovered that there are four satellites orbiting Jupiter.

In gratitude to the Medici family, especially Cosimo who protected him, Galileo named the four satellites "Cosimo's Stars" that he later renamed "Medici's Stars."

He also observed the phases of Venus and the Moon.

The conclusion he drew from observing celestial bodies through a telescope directly contradicted the geocentric model that had been believed for 2,000 years since ancient Greece, which held that "all celestial bodies revolve around the Earth."

Copernicus, who had died before Galileo was born, wrote in his book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" that "Venus should have phases," and he advocated the heliocentric model. Galileo actually proved Copernicus's heliocentric model through astronomical observations.

The Catholic Church and some astronomers criticized Galileo, saying that "the world seen through a telescope is only an illusion."

Nevertheless, the Catholic Church claimed that "it is heretical to believe in the heliocentric model " and brought Galileo to trial.

As a result of the controversy, the judge warned and advised Galileo not to advocate the heliocentric model.

However, he continued to study the heliocentric model and wrote a book called "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems."

Although he published this book during a period of confusion in the papacy, he was ordered to appear in Rome the following year.

He was then tried for the second time.

Finally, he was pronounced guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, although he escaped the death penalty.

It is very famous that he muttered "and yet it moves" at that time.

Galileo eventually went blind, allegedly due to excessive use of the telescope.

However, he continued his research and achieved further results.

He dictated his findings to his disciples and his son.

In the mid-17th century, at the age of 77, Galileo passed away in the outskirts of Florence.

But, due to being considered a criminal, he was not allowed to have a proper burial. It took 95 years after his death to finally be laid to rest in the Santa Croce Church.

Furthermore, in 1992, after 350 years had passed, Pope John Paul II publicly acknowledged and apologized for the wrongful conviction of Galileo.

This is still fresh in our memory. 

 In the center of his tomb, Galileo sits holding a telescope, with sculptures of women representing astronomy and physics on either side.

Proudly engraved in the center are the four moons of Jupiter, those Galileo himself discovered. 




Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 31: Florence, Part 11

May 1 2023


Santa Maria Nuova Hospital

 Santa Maria Nuova Hospital is the oldest hospital in Florence and the largest one in the Tuscany Region.

This hospital is located right behind the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore.

It has been functioning as a magnificent hospital for 700 years in the same building, which is very typical of Florence.

 In the 13th century, it was founded by a banker named Folco Portinari, who was the father of Beatrice.

Beatrice was loved by Dante Alighieri, the famous poet who wrote "The Divine Comedy" . 

He decided to build the hospital after being convinced by his housekeeper Mona Tessa. 

Her tomb is still in the hospital's courtyard.

 In the 14th century, a detailed regulation consisting of 34 articles was created to manage and operate the hospital.

This regulation is considered a model for today's hospital organizations. 

 Over time, the hospital became rich through donations and gifts.

It has been decorated by Florence's artists.

In the 15th century, Pope Martin V visited the hospital.

 During the outbreak of the plague (black death), the isolation ward was established.

It was the first one in the world.

A swaddled doll of a child is also on display.

 In the underground of the adjacent church, there is a room where Leonardo da Vinci conducted dissections in the 16th century, and the "bathtub" where he washed dead bodies.

 As mentioned in the "Milan" edition in February 2021, Leonardo da Vinci was born in the village of Vinci near Florence in the 15th century.

He left remarkable achievements in various fields.

He is most admired as a painter of "The Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa".

 However, it should not be forgotten that he was also a great anatomist. 

At the time, the Church prohibited dissections, but Leonardo, who believed that anatomy was essential for studying painting and sculpture, performed 32 dissections himself.

He is the founder of modern anatomy.

He performed dissections in hospitals in Milan and Rome.

In Florence, he also dissected bodies that had been brought to this underground room at Santa Maria Nuova Hospital.





Exploring the History of Medicine , Part 30: Florence, Part 10

April 1, 2023


Children's Hospital (Orphanage)


 A short distance north of the Cathedral, you will find an old children's hospital.

It was built in the 15th century with donations from silk merchants.

Originally, its purpose was to provide relief for orphans and abandoned children, hence it was called the "Orphanage."

It is the oldest orphanage in Europe.

In Florence, such charitable works were actively pursued, and there were also facilities for unmarried mothers located beside the Cathedral.

 The orphanage, like the dome of the Cathedral, is one of the earliest examples of Renaissance architecture in Florence designed by Brunelleschi.

Columns have once again become an important element in architecture after a long time since ancient Greece.

 The front of the first floor features a long corridor with columns and nine large arches.

Beautiful blue ceramic medallions are embedded at the top of each column.

These medallions, designed by Antonio della Robbia, depict infants swaddled in white cloth.

 In medieval times, there was a custom of wrapping newborns with bandages to protect them from harm, known as swaddling.

This practice was advocated by Soranus of Ephesus, renowned as the founder of obstetrics, and recommended by the famous Roman physician Galenus during the Roman era.

This harmful practice continued widely throughout the Middle Ages until the early 19th century.

 The term "swaddling" is still used today, but it refers to clothing for newborns or "swaddling clothes" rather than bandages.


 Furthermore, at the end of the corridor, there is a "revolving door" where mothers could abandon their children without being seen by others, which is still present and evokes a sense of sadness.

 Facing the beautiful courtyard surrounded by the colonnade, there is a colored terracotta

"Annunciation" depicted.

This is also a work by Antonio della Robbia.


 The Annunciation is a famous event mentioned in the Christian New Testament.

The angel Gabriel descended from heaven to appear before the Virgin Mary and informed her that she had conceived a child by the will of God.

The angel instructed her to name the child Jesus.

Although Mary was initially confused, she accepted by saying, “I am the Lord's servant.

Let it be to me according to your words.”

This theme recurs in artistic works within the Christian cultural sphere.


 A detailed explanation of the Annunciation will be provided in the section of the Uffizi Gallery.





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Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 29: Florence, Part 9

March 1, 2023


National Academy of Fine Arts, Florence

(Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze)


This place used to be a monastery that also served as a sanatorium.

In the late 18th century, Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo of Tuscany consolidated several art schools in Florence and established a public art school and an affiliated art museum in the present location.

This marked the beginning of the Florence Academy of Fine Arts and the Accademia Gallery.

Naturally, the art school and the art museum are connected within the same building, so we can come and go freely between them.

The art school, much like the Accademia Gallery, displays numerous interesting artworks.

For instance, there are various exhibits such as a relief sculpture depicting a deathbed scene, "Sigismund Krasiński (poet) in his childhood and the death of his mother Maria," a mourning female statue accompanying the Pisa Cemetery, and a statue of the goddess Athena, representing wisdom, justice, and the battle.

Athena was born as the daughter of the almighty god Zeus and the goddess Metis of the Titans.

Moreover, she emerged from Zeus's head, fully armed with a spear and wearing a helmet.

With a father who was an all-powerful god and a mother known as a wise goddess, Athena became the "goddess of wisdom and justice."

She is one of the twelve Olympian gods and goddesses.

Athena is not only a "goddess of war," but unlike the brutal, bloodthirsty war god Ares, she presides over the intellectual domains of strategy and tactics, inventing war chariots and weaponry.

Athena generously bestowed her wisdom to make humanity wiser and to advance civilization.

As the goddess of various skills such as craftsmanship, medicine, navigation, spinning, architecture, and shipbuilding, she bestowed blessings upon the lives of humans.

Furthermore, Athena provided assistance, advice, and weapons to heroes, and sometimes accompanied them into battle.

For example, she assisted Perseus in slaying Medusa who was one of the three Gorgon sisters.

Besides, Athena was always present behind the scenes of Hercules' triumphs.

Needless to say, the name of Greece's capital, Athens, derives from its guardian deity, Athena.

I will also share another item related to Athena.

In Greek mythology, the armor given to Athena by Zeus is called the "Aigis."

The Aigis is adorned with snakes and possesses magical power that repels all misfortunes and evils.

The hero Perseus naturally borrowed it from Athena to defeat Medusa.

The English pronunciation of Aigis is "Aegis."

It is the origin of the name for the United States Navy's fleet defense system, the "Aegis System.”

It translates to a "solid shield" that defends against all attacks.

And by Athena's side, Nike always accompanied her.

Nike is the goddess of victory and she has a pair of wings.

The global sports brand "Nike" takes its name from the goddess of victory in Greek mythology.

The company's logo is inspired by the wings of this goddess.

In Roman mythology, the goddess of victory, Nike, is known as Victoria.


This, of course, is the origin of the English word "victory."





Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 28: Florence, Part 8

February 1, 2023


 The Accademia Gallery

The Accademia Gallery is the affiliated art museum of the Florence Academy of Fine Arts.

It houses several sculptures by Michelangelo and Florentine Renaissance paintings from the 13th to the 16th century.

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) was born in Florence and was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet.

He left behind numerous outstanding works of art and, due to his versatility, he is often referred to as the "Renaissance Man," or “Universal Genius” just like Leonardo da Vinci.

Michelangelo was 23 years younger than Leonardo and eight years older than Raphael.

These three men are named the "Three Great Masters of the Renaissance."

While Michelangelo himself downplayed painting, he created two highly influential frescoes that left a profound impact on the Western art world.

These are the ceiling fresco "The Genesis; The Creation of Adam" and the altar wall painting "The Last Judgment," both located in the Sistine Chapel of the San Pietro Cathedral in Vatican City.

On the other hand, sculpture held the greatest importance for Michelangelo, and his most famous masterpiece is the "Pieta" (the Virgin Mary holding the crucified Jesus Christ in her arms) at the San Pietro Cathedral and the “Statue of Davide” at the Accademia Gallery.

The statue of Davide was created by Michelangelo over a period of three years upon the commission of the Florentine citizens who had expelled the Medici family, specifically Piero II , a son of Lorenzo de' Medici.

Davide is a hero who appears in the Old Testament's "Book of Samuel" and lived around 1000 BC.

The English male name "David" is derived from his name “Davide.”

By the way, the Old Testament is a scripture of Judaism and Christianity, containing stories such as "The Creation of the World" and "Noah's Ark."

Saul, the first king of Israel, betrayed God's command.

The boy Davide, a shepherd, caught God's attention as the candidate for next king of Israel.

Davide was handsome and skilled in playing the harp, but he was also a brave warrior.

The Israelites led by Saul repeatedly fought against the Philistines.

When Davide happened to visit the battlefield, he was provoked by Goliath, the strongest giant warrior of the Philistines.

Davide stood before Saul with only a shepherd's staff and a bag of stones.

Davide threw a stone towards the charging Goliath, and it hit him in the forehead, causing Goliath to fall face down.

Davide pulled out Goliath's sword and cut off his head.

Witnessing this, the Philistine army fell into disarray, and the Israelite army emerged victorious.

Davide continued to play a crucial role in saving the nation and eventually became the second king of Israel.

He ruled the country for several decades.

His descendant, Joseph of Nazareth, was born about a thousand years later.

Joseph's wife, Mary, gave birth to Jesus Christ in Bethlehem, Davide's birthplace.

Since the 16th century, King Davide has been depicted on French and English playing cards as the King of Spades ().

Indeed, he is often portrayed holding the symbol of the harp.

The monumental marble statue, standing at 5.2 meters tall, depicts Davide aiming to throw a stone at the giant Goliath.

The muscles are well-defined, veins are visible, and the sculpture exudes tension.

His gaze is focused, his lips firmly closed, and his expression is rational.

The statue of a young boy confronting a giant represents both the republic that overthrows dictatorship and the symbol of Florence, a small state standing against surrounding countries.

Davide, being Jewish, should have been circumcised, but Michelangelo portrayed him with a foreskin.

This has sparked ongoing debates about whether this sculpture can be considered based on biblical accounts.

Additionally, Davide's testicles hang lower on the left side compared to the right.

This is consistent with the statistical fact that "more than half of men have the left testicle hanging lower than the right.”

Male readers! Please confirm this by looking in the mirror.






Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 27: Florence, Part 7

January 1, 2023


Piazza della Signoria (Square of the Lords)

In the 13th and 14th centuries, the people of the autonomous city of Florence embraced the republic and regularly gathered in the square to engage in debates and conduct votes by raising their hands.

In one corner of the square, there is a place where a circular bronze paving is buried.

This is the spot where Girolamo Savonarola was executed by hanging and then burned at the stake, after undergoing torture.

Savonarola was a strict friar of the Dominican Order and vehemently criticized the Renaissance, which praised human physicality and desires, as well as the Medici family who were its patrons.

He lamented the moral decay of secular culture and delivered his message to the citizens at the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore.

Furthermore, he piled up works of art and decorations in this Piazza della Signoria and set them ablaze, claiming it to be "incineration of vanities."

This event occurred at the end of the 15th century and is considered a precursor to the religious Reformation.

However, his strict ideology was not accepted in the Renaissance-era Florence, and the economy stagnated.

The following year, citizens who had turned against Savonarola captured him.

Those from the Franciscan Order and the Medici family, who resented the rise of the Dominican Order, subjected Savonarola to the "trial by fire."

They demanded, "If you are a true prophet, prove it by walking over the roaring flames."

He refused, saying, "You shall not test God."

Seeing this as an excuse, the citizens judged him, framed him as a criminal, and after the hanging, subjected him to burning at the stake!


Loggia dei Lanzi

Piazza della Signoria was the political center where citizen assemblies were frequently held.

To allow for gatherings even in rainy weather, a covered arcade, known as "Loggia" in Italian, was constructed in the 14th century.

The name "Lanzi" derives from the historical fact that under the rule of Cosimo I de' Medici, the arcade was used by "Landsknechte" (German mercenaries).

Over time, "Landsknechte" evolved into "Lanzi" due to pronunciation.

Today, the Loggia dei Lanzi displays ancient and Renaissance sculptures, resembling an open-air museum with a roof.

Among them, the work "Perseus " by Cellini stands out.

We cannot overlook it.

The brave hero Perseus is holding high the freshly severed head of the monster Medusa in his left hand.

Medusa is one of the three Gorgon sisters in Greek mythology.

Innately a beautiful lady, Medusa had an affair with the sea god Poseidon, which led to her transformation into a hideous monster by the goddess of war, Athena, out of jealousy.

Her beautiful hair turned into writhing snakes, and she gained wild boar tusks, bronze hands, and wings.

Furthermore, her eyes gleamed with a magical power that turned anyone she looked into stone.

Perseus borrowed a shield from Athena and stealthily approached sleeping Medusa.

Since making eye contact would turn him into stone, he relied on the reflection on the shield and  finally beheaded the monster with great success.

In portal hypertension conditions like liver cirrhosis, portal blood flows into the umbilical vein and then towards the inferior vena cava.

This is called the portosystemic shunt, and when the blood flow through this pathway increases, the subcutaneous veins in the abdominal wall become engorged radially.

This appearance resembles wriggling snakes, leading to the term “Caput Medusae”, or "Head of Medusa."




Exploring the History of Medicine, Part 26: Florence, Part 6

December 1, 2022


Misericordia Charitable Emergency Clinic

In Christianity, there is a belief in practicing both "inner faith (love for God)" and "outward actions (love for one's neighbor)."

Regarding love for one's neighbor, it teaches us to practice "mercy" or "Misericordia" as a concrete action.

The "Seven Acts of Mercy" mentioned in the Bible are as follows:

1.      Give food to the hungry.

2.      Give water to the thirsty.

3.      Provide shelter to travelers.

4.      Clothe the naked.

5.      Visit and care for the sick.

6.      Visit prisoners.

7.      Bury the dead.

In medieval Europe, as Christianity spread, numerous "brotherhoods" emerged as volunteer organizations.

One of the oldest among them is the "Misericordia (Brotherhood of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy)," founded in 13th-century Florence.

In the 14th century, Misericordia, alongside other brotherhoods like "Or San Michele" and "Bigallo," became an important charitable organization.

From the 14th century onward, during intermittent outbreaks of the plague, Misericordia devoted itself to acts of mercy.

Many believers who cared for the sick during these times fell victim to the plague themselves.

In the 16th century, at the behest of Francesco de' Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Misericordia was given a building facing the square in front of the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral, a prime location in Florence.

During both World Wars, Misericordia transported wounded soldiers and provided emergency medical care.

Even in modern times, Misericordia continues its medical and service activities based on Christian values.

They not only help the sick and the poor but also provide comfort to prisoners before their execution and assist impoverished women with the marriage expenses.

In front of the headquarters facing the Cathedral Square, Misericordia's ambulances and staff are always on standby.

A sign reads, "Serving for Eternity."

I, too, displayed a sense of "mercy" and made a modest donation (10 euros, approximately 1,300 yen at the time).

Though not in Florence, I will serve for eternity in Tsujido, Fujisawa City, Kanagawa, Japan.






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